Historia (History)

“What we do now echoes in eternity.”

― Marcus Aurelius, Meditations


The Founding of Rome
Romans believe they are descended from Aeneas, a Trojan hero and son of the goddess Aphrodite (Venus). When the city of Troy fell, Aeneas and his followers escaped and sailed in search of a new home. Aeneas went on to found the city of Lavinium, in Italy. Aeneas’s son Ascanius later founded the city of Alba Longa in the Alban Hills not far south of Rome’s present location.

All was well for nearly 300 years, until Aeneas’s descendant, King Numitor, was overthrown by his wicked brother Amulius. Numitor’s own life was spared, but his sons were murdered and his daughter Rhea Silvia was forced to become a vestal virgin so she would not bear children to challenge Amulius. But then Rhea was visited by the war-god Mars, they became lovers, and she bore him twin boys.

The angry Amulius ordered that Rhea’s children be condemned to drowning. They were taken to the Tiber in a basket and set afloat, but the basket did not sink. The river spirit Tibernus ensured their safety by lowering the waters, and caused their basket to catch in the roots of a nearby fig tree. Mars then sent a she-wolf and woodpecker to nurse and feed his children. The twins were eventually discovered by a herdsman and his wife and named Romulus and Remus.

As they grew up, the twins had many adventures in which they displayed great strength and courage. By the time they were young men, Romulus and Remus were recognized leaders. On one adventure, they met Numitor and learned their true parentage. They killed Amulius, freed Rhea, and restored their grandfather to the throne.

To celebrate their victory, the twins decided to found their own city. They chose a site farther down the Tiber, near where they had been discovered as babies, on the largest of seven hills. Remus and Romulus quarreled over the name of their city. They chose to settle the dispute by each watching for an omen; the first to spot one could name the city. Remus spotted six vultures, while Romulus spotted even more vultures than that, making his omen better. Remus, however, had seen his omen first. The twins argued again, and to mock Romulus during their argument, Remus committed an act of sacrilege by jumping over the newly built city walls that Romulus had constructed. He was killed by Romulus and his men, and Romulus claimed that a similar fate awaited anyone else that attempted to cross those walls.

Romulus became king, and the city was named after him. To increase the city’s population, Romulus offered asylum to fugitives from other towns, and he found them wives by stealing women from the neighboring Sabine people during a festival. After reigning for 40 years, Romulus vanished in a storm at the place called Goat’s Marsh (on the Campus Martius just outside the city) and was taken into heaven to become the god Quirinus.

~500 PA The Trojan War.
~400 PA Etruscans reach northern Italy.
~100 PA Phoenicians establish Carthage on the north coast of Africa.
~50 PA Greeks begin to establish colonies throughout southern Italy.
0 AUC Rome is founded by Romulus.
3 AUC Greeks establish a colony at Cumae.
136 AUC Tarquinius I becomes an Etruscan king of Rome.
154 AUC Rome becomes a province of Etruria.
245 AUC Romans revolt against the Etruscan kings and create the Senate and the Assembly. The last king (Tarquinius Superbus) is expelled and Rome becomes a republic.
260 AUC Beginning of the Class Wars between patricians (wealthy landowners who controlled the Senate) and plebeians (ordinary citizens).
280 AUC Greeks lead a host of Minotaurs and Dragonborn to defeat the Etruscans at Cumae.
303 AUC Law of the Twelve Tables provides written Roman law.
357 AUC Rome conquers the Etruscan city of Veii.
367 AUC Gauls, Celts, and Elves sack Rome.
411 AUC Rome fights the Samnites.
413 AUC Rome conquers Campania from the Samnites with its capital of Capua.
414 AUC Rome fights the Latin League, including the Samnites.
416 AUC Rome dissolves and annexes the Latin League.
428 AUC The Circus Maximus is built.
433 AUC Rome is defeated by the Samnites at the Battle of the Caudine Forks.
442 AUC Construction of the Via Appia begins.
446 AUC Rome conquers the Etruscan city of Tarquinia.
459 AUC Rome defeats the Samnites at Sentinum and the Gauls in northern Italy.
471 AUC Rome establishes Gallia Cisalpina (Cisalpine Gaul) in nothern Italy.
474 AUC Rome is defeated by Pyrrhus of Epirus at Heraclea.
479 AUC Rome defeats Pyrrhus and conquers most of southern Italy.
482 AUC The Greek colony of Tarentum surrenders to Rome and soon all remaining Greek colonies of southern Italy follow suit.
490 AUC The Romans destroy the last vestiges of the Etruscan civilization. Rome and Carthage fight the first Punic war. The first gladiator games are held.
516 AUC Rome conquers Sardinia.
522 AUC Gaius Flaminius enacts an agrarian law ceding land of northern Italy to poorer classes of citizens.
525 AUC The First Illyrian War. Rome establishes a protectorate over a number of Greek cities and expels the Dragonborn and their queen Teuta.
529 AUC Gauls invade Rome.
532 AUC Invading Gauls are defeated.
535 AUC The Second Illyrian War.
536 AUC Hannibal of Carthage leads a horde of Orcs and Hobgoblins into Italy. Giants from the Alps and Gauls of northern Italy join as allies.
538 AUC Hannibal defeats Rome at Cannae.
545 AUC The Roman general Scipio conquers Nova Carthago.
547 AUC Rome defeats Hannibal at the Metaurus river.
548 AUC Scipio defeats Carthaginians at Illipa.
550 AUC Scipio sails for Carthage.
552 AUC Scipio defeats Hannibal at Zama. Rome annexes Spain.
557 AUC Philip V of Greece is defeated by the Romans at Cynoscephalae.
558 AUC The slaves of Etruria rebel.
559 AUC Celts of Spain rebel.
562 AUC The Syrian War.
565 AUC Antiochus III, king of the Seleucids, is defeated at the battle of Magnesia and surrenders his possessions in Europe and Anatolia.
569 AUC Slaves of Apulia rebel.
573 AUC Gauls of northern Italy are subjugated.
579 AUC Celts of Spain are subjugated.
583 AUC The Third Macedonian War begins when Perseus attacks Rome.
586 AUC The Romans defeat Philip V's son Perseus at Pydna and end the Antigonid dynasty.
587 AUC At the end of the Third Macedonian War the Romans divide Macedonia into four republics.
600 AUC The tribes of Lusitania rebel against Rome.
603 AUC Roman troops massacre Celts in Spain.
605 AUC Rome attacks Carthage. Rome conquers Greece after winning the battle of Corinth and destroying the city.
608 AUC Rome destroys Carthage. Macedonia becomes a province of Rome.
615 AUC First Servile War. Slave revolt in Sicily with the crucifixion of 4,500 slaves.
621 AUC Attalus III of Pergamum wills his kingdom to Rome. The entire Mediterranean Sea (Mare Nostrum) falls under Roman control.
626 AUC Southern Aquitania becomes a province of Rome.
641 AUC Dwarven and Germanic tribes Cimbri and Teutones defeat the Romans and invade Gaul and Spain.
643 AUC Rome declares war on Numidia.
648 AUC The Romans led by newly elected consul Marius defeat Jugurtha, the Sorcerer-King of Numidia.
649 AUC Dwarves, Teutones, and Cimbri defeat the Romans at Arausio.
650 AUC Second Servile War. Slave revolt in Sicily led by the wizard Athenion.
652 AUC Consul Gaius Marius defeats the Dwarven-Teutonic army at Aquae Sextiae, killing about 100,000 of them.
653 AUC Consul Gaius Marius defeats the Cimbri at Vercelli, killing most of them. Roman troops massacre Athenion's rebels.
654 AUC Lucius Saturninus proposes Gracchian reforms but is killed by Marius' troops.
656 AUC Roman troops massacre Spaniards.
659 AUC The city of Rome expels all non-Roman citizens (except slaves).
664 AUC Beginning of the Social War. Central and Southern Italians are granted full citizenship.
666 AUC Roman civil war. Sulla marches on Rome to seize power from Marius, the first time that a Roman army invades Rome.
667 AUC Octavius and Cinna are elected consuls. Octavius, defender of the optimates and ally of Sulla, is killed by Marius when he opposes Cinna, defender of the populares, along with many Sulla supporters.
672 AUC Sulla reconquers Rome with the aid of the Drow, executes thousands of political enemies and becomes dictator, establishing a reign of terror and enacting aristocratic laws.
674 AUC Sulla returns power to the Senate and retires to private life.
680 AUC Creation of the new Roman province of Bithynia. Cyrenaica also made a Roman province.
681 AUC Third Servile War. Spartacus leads the revolt of the gladiators.
683 AUC Marcus Licinius Crassus puts down Spartacus' revolt and crucifies 6,000 slaves on the Via Appia.
684 AUC Crassus and Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (Pompey) are elected consuls.
685 AUC Rome invades Tigranes' Armenian kingdom and destroys its capital, Tigranocerta. Pirates attack the port of Ostia and later sack Delos.
686 AUC Pompey launches a campaign against pirates of Cilicia and is given dictatorial powers by the Senate.
690 AUC Syria becomes a Roman province under general Pompey. Tieflings are granted sanctuary in Rome.
691 AUC Cicero thwarts Catilina's attempted coup. Pompey captures Jerusalem and annexes Palestine to Rome.
695 AUC Julius Caesar elected consul. The Triumvirate is formed by Crassus, Pompey, and Caesar.
696 AUC Caesar's war against the Gauls.

PA = Prioris annorum meaning "previous years"
AUC = Ab urbe condita meaning "from the founding of the City (Rome)

Historia (History)

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